Headache is one of the most common reasons for an emergency room visit. Some people go due to chronic headache or Migraine problems that do not go away with treatment, and in other cases, headache is a symptom of another medical problem.
The best reason for an ER visit is for unusual symptoms that are new to you. You may seek attention to make sure there is no chance of another problem such as aneurysm or meningitis. A severe headache that starts very suddenly (within a second or two) can mean another disorder such as stroke.
New symptoms such as a fever, weakness, vision loss or double vision, or confusion are some of most concerning symptoms. If you have a new symptom and serious, life-threatening medical problems such as liver, heart or kidney disease, are pregnant, or have a disorder that affects your immune system such as HIV infection, an ER visit may be more essential.
For many patients, an ER visit for headache or Migraine happens after a long period of severe headache lasting days or weeks. After long time of experiencing severe headaches, you may reach the “last straw” and no longer be able to deal with the problem.
ER doctors are not specialists in headache and Migraine, and their goals are to make sure there is no serious, life-threatening problem and help reduce suffering. Different ER doctors have different ways to treat acute headaches and Migraine: there is no universal protocol for emergency treatment of headache disorders.
When going to the ER, be sure to mention:
- your symptoms, including any that are new or unusual for you;
- any medications you have taken, especially in the last few days; and
- if you have had good results from a particular medication regimen, that can be helpful to the ER.
Often ER doctors will want to order tests such as a CT scan of the head or spinal tap to make sure there is no bleeding in the brain, large stroke or meningitis. If you are having your typical severe headache or Migraine, and no new symptoms, the chance these tests will be helpful are extremely low and you have the right to refuse them (see 5 Things Migraine and Headache Patients and Doctors Should Question).
The majority of persons coming to an ER for severe headache or Migraine do not get lasting results from the medications given in the ER, so having a good long-term plan and relationship with an outpatient doctor who treats your headache disorder is very important. If you have even occasional long-lasting headaches or Migraines, a good migraine preventive plan is very important, and you should have at least one rescue medication to prevent future ER visits.
© Dr. Michael Marmura, 2014. All rights reserved.
Last updated February 26, 2014.
Reviewed for accuracy by the American Migraine Foundation’s subject matter experts, headache specialists and medical advisers with deep knowledge and training in headache medicine. Click here to read about our editorial board members.